There are two types of coffee roasting machines:

With Rotating Drum
This type is based on an operating principle:
• Conduction by heat transfer
• Roasting by direct contact from the walls of the drums, heated by the flame with the flow of hot air.
• The baking time varies between 8 to 17 minutes.

This type is based on an operating principle:
• Heat transfer
• Hot air flow, allowing even more similar roasting temperature regulation and precise timing.
• Roasting time varies between 8 to 17 minutes.

Baking analysis

The heat used in roasting, causes the coffee beans to undergo changes such as:
• Reduction of moisture (from 12 – 8% to 5 – 1%)
• Reduction in weight (by 15 – 20% due to evaporation of water)
• Increase in volume (by 30 – 60% due to the formation of carbon dioxide)
• Change in colour (the grains become darker) change in content (+ 12 – 16 % fats, -10 % sugars, – 3 % acids)
• Development of aromas

These changes are gradual and are determined by an increase in the roasting temperature.
• 50 °C: the internal modification of the tissues begins
• 60 °C: the evaporation process begins
• 100 °C: the first colour changes occur
• Between 150 and 180 °C: light roasting stage
• Between 200 and 230 °C: optimum degree of roasting
• Between 215 and 220 °C: light roasting (more acidic and less bitter)
• Between 220 and 225 °C: medium roasting stage
• Between 225 and 230 °C: dark roasting (more bitter and less acidic)


Cooling methods

After roasting, the coffee beans are rapidly cooled to ensure internal condensation of the aromatic substances.

There are two cooling methods:

Air cooling

• Cold air flow, rapid cooling.
• Loses some of the flavours.
• Produces fumes and scents.

Water cooling

• Fine spray in precise quantities.
• Reduction of some aromas by opening the pores of the coffee fruit.

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